高考英语书面表达的训练方法

林妙娟

    语言运用是听说读写能力在交际中的运用,用英语进行书面表达就是其中的一种交际能力。书面表达是全面考察考生英语水平的一种途径,不但可以了解其接受技能(receptive skills),而且还可以考查其产出技能(productive skills),是对语音、语法、词汇、写作等能力进行的综合性考查。
    事实证明,高考英语的书面表达题虽然只占25分,但通过实际的备考写作训练却能够对听力部分的听取信息题,二卷的短文改错题产生很大的提高作用。因此,抓好书面表达训练,对于考生提高主观题的得分显得尤为重要。
    怎样才算是一篇好的书面表达呢?除了要点齐全、句子正确外,还有两个非常关键之处。首先是行文连贯,运用恰当的连接词使文章结构严密并具有较强的逻辑性,文章读起来通顺流畅。 其次,考生应该从遣词造句角度多下工夫。从词语上,尽可能运用已经学过的而且比较熟悉的词组、短语或成语,过度追求生僻或高难词汇,反而会弄巧成拙;从句式上,在保证准确无误的前提下,力求尝试运用多种句式。
    一、 高考英语书面表达训练基本模式
    在平时的作文课上必须始终贯彻科任教师根据学生情况选择的一套写作模式。一般必须具备以下步骤:
    ◆ 仔细审题。 如果是图表类或者是漫画类,看懂图表与文字或每幅图片之间的联系至关重要。
    ◆ 写要点。根据中文提示的每个要点或每幅图写出一至两句话。因为每年高考书面表达一般控制在10句话,100~120个词左右。
    ◆ 连句成文。每句话写好后,用适当的连词连接起来,使之上下连贯,呼应,通顺,简洁。
    ◆ 查错漏。完稿后,检查一下有没有句型、时态,语态,拼写等错误并逐一加以改正。
    ◆ 卷面整洁。卷面整洁干净甚至比流畅、简洁更重要。因为整洁干净给阅卷人精神上带来愉悦,相对而言,分数自然要给得高一些。
    二、 高考英语书面表达高分策略
    (一)使用适量的高级词汇及短语
    如果仅仅记住几个简单基础的词汇,而且一味的重复低水平的英语常识点,还远远没有达到大学的入学要求。这就要求考生在平时的训练和考试当中,有意识的强化“复杂,高级”这两个概念,使自己的作文能力区别于普通学生的作文,使自己一下子就站在一个比别人高的位置上,充分显示自己的实力。
    平时教学过程中注意总结各种各样的词汇。以描述人物的词汇为例:
    1.表达人物爱憎感情的词语
    like, love, be interested in, be fond of, hate,dis?鄄like, be tired of, lose interest in, happy, excited, pleased, satisfied, angry, sad, worried, disappointed, terrified, mad, frightened, etc.
    2.描述人物性格,外貌和身体状况等的词语
    good-looking, funny-looking, strong-looking, ugly-looking, dirty-looking, ordinary-looking, blue-eyed, white-eyed, warm-hearted, light-hearted,kind-hearted, absent-minded, tall,short, beautiful, pretty, lovely, naughty, be blind / lame in, be in good or poor condition, healthy, fine, well, strong-tempered,
    bad-tempered, near-sighted, far-sighted, foolish, stupid, silly, clever, smart, wise, bright, diligent,intelligent, lazy, hard working, etc.
    3.先容人物的影响及对人的评价的动词短语
    he became famous for his new theory.
    the people had come to love him as an inspiring leader.
    we regard li fei as our model.
    lei feng has been praised for his communist spirit.
    people spoke highly of him and all respected him.
    (二)句式多变,语法活用
    句子是表达一个完整意思的最小当位,所以造句能力在英文写作中是非常重要的。好的英语句子能够生动,形象,准确的表达内容。所以要想写出漂亮的书面表达,必须从写好句子开始。熟记英语基本句型及练习造句是基础。
    练习写好句子的方法一:合并句子
    适当运用过渡词语和关联词,变简单句为复合句,使句子更为流畅。
    ① the police searched everywhere. the missing boy could not be found. his dog could not be found.
    although the police searched everywhere, neither the missing boy nor his dog could be found.
    ② chaplin directed a large number of films. most of them were silent.
    chaplin directed a large number of films, most of which were silent.
    ③ titanic sailed for new york from southampton on april 10th, 1912. she was carrying 1316 passen?鄄gers and a crew of 891. she was the largest ship that had ever been built. she was regarded as unsinkable.
    titanic sailed for new york from southampton on april 10th, 1912, carrying 1316 passengers and a crew of 891. at that time, she was not only the largest ship that had ever been built but (also) was regarded as unsinkable.
    写好句子的方法二:改写句子
    1)mr. green is a tall man, who wears a pair of thick glasses. (改成介词短语做伴随状语)
    1)the book cost me 300 yuan.
    mr.green is a tall man with a pair of thick glass?鄄es.
    2)the ice on the lake is too thin for us to skate on. (使用so…that…结构改写句子)
    the ice on the lake is so thin that we can?蒺t skate on it.
    练习方法三:一句多译
    两天后他就要过生日了。
    ① his birthday is two days away.
    ② his birthday is in two days.
    ③ his birthday is in two days' time.
    ④ it will be two days before he celebrates his birthday.
    这本书花了我300元。
    i spent 300 yuan on the book.
    i paid 300 yuan for the book.
    the price of the book is 300 yuan.
    it cost me 300 yuan to buy the book.
    我碰巧遇见他的叔叔。
    ① i happened to meet his uncle.
    ② i chanced to see his uncle.
    ③ i met with his uncle.
    ④ i came across his uncle.
    ⑤ i ran across his uncle.
    ⑥ it (so) happened that i saw his uncle.
    一到家,我就把所见到的一切都记了下来。
    on/upon arriving home, i wrote down everything i had seen.
    as soon as i arrived home, i wrote down every?鄄thing i had seen.
    the moment i arrived home, i wrote down every?鄄thing i had seen.
    the instant i arrived home, i wrote down every?鄄thing i had seen.
    no sooner had i arrived home than i wrote down everything i had seen.
    昨天下午他才来。
    he came here yesterday afternoon.
    he didn?蒺t come here until yesterday afternoon.
    not until yesterday afternoon did he come here.
    it was yesterday afternoon that he arrived here.
    it was not until yesterday afternoon that he came here.
    练习方法四:留心汉英表达差异, 避免中式英语。
    1)父母对大家希望很高。
    our parents expect us high.
    our parents expect much of us.
    2) 高考
    high exam
    college entrance examination/test
    3) 二班在篮球比赛中赢了一班。
    class 2 won class 3 in the basketball match.
    class two beat/defeated class one in the bas?鄄ketball match.
    4)体育用品齐全。
    the pe tools are full.
    all kinds of sports equipment are provided.
    5) 他健壮如牛。
    he is as strong as a cow.
    he is strong like a horse (as strong as a horse).
    6)只有一间危房作教室。
    there was only a danger room as the classroom.
    the only dangerous room had to be used as a classroom.
    (三)合理使用好的连接词,联句成篇。
    满分作文都有个共性就是有效地使用了语句间的连接成分,使全文结构紧凑。文章的连贯性和紧凑感是很重要的。句子作为最小的表达意思的语言当位如果只是被随意的整合,是无法达到有效表达的目的。
    常见的句子之间的连接手段有:
    1)使用代词指代上一句中的名词
    2)重复使用上一句中的词
    3)使用连接词
    4)使用平行结构
    为了让学生更好地使用连接词,应引导学生对常用的以及可以用得上的连接词进行归纳分类。
    表并列补充关系: what is more, besides, also, as well, moreover, furthermore, in addition
    表转折对比关系: but, however, yet, instead, on the other hand, on the contrary, although, different from, in contrast to, despite, in spite of, whereas, un?鄄like, nevertheless, not only...but also, here...there, years ago...today, this...that, the former...the latter, then...now, the first...whereas the second, once...now, on the one hand...on the other , some...others
    表因果关系: since, as, because (of), for, so, thus, therefore, as a result, so that
    表条件关系: if, on the condition (that), as long as, unless, or else
    表时间关系: when, after, before, until, as soon as, later, afterwards, soon, lately, recently, since, from then on, eventually, in the meantime, then, suddenly, at the same time, next, early this morning/year/centu?鄄ry, after an interval, now, after, presently, later, after?鄄ward, somewhat later, finally, at last, all of a sudden
    表特定的顺序关系: above all, first of all, firstly, first, secondly, the , next, finally, in the end, at last
    表换一种方式表达: in other words, that is to say, to put it another way
    表举例说明: for instance, for example, like, such as
    表陈述事实: in fact, actually, as a matter of fact, to tell you the truth
    表总结: on the whole, in short, all in all, general, in a word, in conclusion, in closing, in summary
    谋篇原则还要注意做到呈现优秀习作启迪全体学生。以笔者一位学生的高三月考作文为例:
    feb. 20th, 2004
    dear alice,
    i?蒺m glad to hear from you. you said you were in?鄄terested in chinese education. to meet your demands, i will tell you something about it.
    in the past, under the pressure of exam-oriented education, we had to listen carefully and take notes in detail. we had so much homework to do that we had to work hard all day long. it sounded terrible.
    but now, with the help of quality-oriented edu?鄄cation, we have an appetite for study. first, when hav?鄄ing classes, we are all active in thinking. sometimes, students can act as teachers. only in this way can we explore our talent and develop our abilities. after class, we take part in many kinds of activities such as singing, dancing, playing football or basketball. also we can attend english corner and study computers. in the evening, we read news on newspaper, do experi?鄄ments and discuss our subjects.
    it is quality-oriented education that changes our study life. what about yours?
    all the best.
    yours,
    li hua
    在考试的有限时间里,这篇文章能够一气呵成,语言生动、流畅,行文连贯,层次清晰,熟练运用了大量课本中的短语和句型,因而对于其他同学起到了良好的示范作用。
    实践证明,只要坚持有序、系统的训练,学生必然能够习得有效信息,真正懂得如何改善表达,写作能力得到提高,作文也就越写越有信心,越写越好。教师可以从学生的习作中体会一二,师生共享收获的喜悦。
 
  (编辑单位 广州市第六十五中学    本文学科编辑 周文筑)
选自《广州教学研究》总第379期

  
   


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