高考英语文段阅读中词义推测技巧浅析

李坊辉

    近几年的高考阅读理解越来越重视对考生猜词悟义能力的考查,对比研究近10年高考原题可以发现,高考阅读的信息量和生词量稳中有升,对考生推测词义能力的要求进一步提高,推测词义是基本的阅读技能,也是高考常用的考查形式。历年高考“猜词”考点分布情况是:94年2题,96年1题,97年1题,99年2题,2000年2题,2001年1题,2002年2题,其中2003年猜词考点就有2处。本文结合高考原题,对近10年推测词义的考点逐一加以解析,从中提炼实用的解题技能,以期引导考生的复习备考。囿于篇幅,在兼顾试题原貌的基础上,对原题内容适度取舍。那么,如何在阅读中提高猜词能力、排除词汇障碍呢?
    一、联系语境推测词义
    “No context, no text”,说明了文章离不开语境。因此,在阅读中遇到生词,考生可以联系上下文所形成的语境,对生词的词义进行合理地推测。
    例一(NMET2002)A child's birthday party doesn't have to be a hassle; it can be a basket of fun,…“Having a party at home usually requires a lot of running around on the part of the parents,…” said Anaclerio.
    74. Which does the underlined word “hassle”(paragraph 1) probably mean?
    A. a party designed by specialist
    B. a plan requiring careful thought
    C. a situation causing difficulty or trouble
    D. a demand made by guests
    解析:根据“孩子的生日宴会不必hassle,但还是可以让宴会充满欢乐这一意义”判断“hassle”是贬义词,再加上Anaclerio的说明“在家里举行宴会需要小寿星的父母忙碌操劳,但事实上这并没有必要” 可以推测“hassle”的意思为“麻烦、烦恼”。由此选答案C。
    例二(NMET1999)… Philadelphia gained another treasure for its history, and Luxmoore told reporters, “It's wonderful news. I'm on high.”
    55.What did Cory Luxmoore mean when he said “I'm on high”?
    A. I'm rich B. I'm famous
    C. I'm excited D. I'm lucky.
    解析:Luxmoore先生把一本记载费城历史的日记本献给费城图书企业,但在返还途中遗失,几经努力失而复得。得到消息后,Luxmoore先生对记者说这是个喜讯。既然是喜讯,他理所当然感到高兴,因此推测“I'm on high”的意思是“我很兴奋”,正确答案是C。
    二、根据释义或下定义推测词义
    有些文章中实际上已对生僻词作了说明或下定义。定义部分即为生词的含义。表示定义的词有that is, in other words, which means, we can put it another way, what I want to say is, stand for,or等。
    例三(NMET2000 D篇)…Perhaps they will spend their days gollocking to make new spundels, or struggling with their ballalators through the cribe. These words, which I have just made up, have to stand for things and ideas that we simply can't think of.…
    65.Spundels and ballalators are used in the text to refer to _________.
    A.tools used in farming
    B.ideas about modern life
    C.unknown things in the future
    D.hunting skills in the Stone Age
    解析:50,000年以前的人类以狩猎为生,那时的人类根本无法预知今天人类的生活状态,那么,今天的人类如何能想象50,000年后的情景,“stand for”是一个定义关键词。根据编辑的说明,划线部分是编辑“杜撰的表现未来人类的事物和思想的词, 以此反映未来人类利用未知方式从事某项活动”。正确答案选C。
    三、借助标点符号推测词义
    标点符号具有文字的功能,一个符号对应某种意义。如冒号表示进一步说明,括号表示注解或说明,破折号表示说明或列举等。
    例四(NMET2001)The largest player -- Shanghai Bashi Tourism Car Rental Center offers a wide variety of choices -- deluxe sedans, minivans, station wagons, coaches. Santana sedans are the big favorite. …
    56. The words “ deluxe sedans,”“minivans” and “station wagons” used in the text refer to ____.
    A.cars in the making B.car rental firms
    C.cars for rent D.car makers
    解析:全文是一则关于上海出租汽车行业发展状况的报道。文中第一个破折号用来说明,第二个破折号表列举,相当于such as。列举对象deluxe sedans, minivans, station wagons, coaches属并列结构,识一词而辨其它。再加上"桑塔纳是最受欢迎的车型"的诠释,可以推断deluxe sedans, minivans and station wagons是出租汽车企业提供的几种车型,故答案选C。
    四、根据对比关系推测词义
    大家在推测生词的词义时,还可以利用上下文中出现的表示相反、对立、转折意义的词或短语,表示对比关系的词有:on one side… on the other side,for one thing … for another,on the contrary,in contrast,on the other hand,rather than,yet,however,although,while unlike,but,whereas等。它们常表示句子后半部分某些词语的意义与句子前半部分某些词语的意义是相反的。考生可以根据句子间的对比关系推测词义。例如:Our maths professor claims that all the problems he gives us are simple ones,however,we feel that they are intricate and hard to solve. 从however这个表示转折意思的连词大家可推测intricate与simple是相对的,意为“复杂的”。
    例五(NMET2000)…One mistaken idea about business is that it can be treated as a game of perfect information. Quite the reverse. Business, life itself are games which we must normally play with very imperfect information.…
    61. Which of the following can be used in place of “Quite the reverse”?
    A. Quite right B. True enough
    C. Most unlikely D. Just the opposite
    解析:根据数学家John Von Neumann的游戏理论,游戏分为两类:一类是“perfect information”(如象棋),靠逻辑和技巧取胜;一类是“imperfect information”(如扑克),靠运气取胜。而对于商业决策人们有一种错误的认识,以为它是一种“perfect information”。事实上,商业决策往往包含许多未知的因素。在正反两种认识之间具有明显的对比关系,因此推测正反两种认识之间的过渡词“quite the reverse”的意思是“正好相反”,正确答案选D。
    五、根据同义关系推测词义
    一些生词的词义是可以利用上下文中有关词汇,短语来推测的,比如在文章中编辑有时用具有同一含义或意思相近的几个词语,大家就可以利用上下文中熟悉的词语来推测生词的含义。
    例六 (2001年北京春季B篇)He called to us that there was no one there, so we ran down to the bank, looking everywhere carefully. We could not understand where the man had gone, when it got dark, we went back to our camp feeling bewildered.
    57.The word “bewildered” in the text probably means _______.
    A. ashamed
    B. nervous
    C. unable to understand
    D. eager to know something
    解析:bewildered 与 could not understand 同义,即unable to understand
    六、通过反义词推测词义
    借助词汇之间的正反意义关系,由此义推彼义。
    例七(NMET1999B篇)Computer people talk a lot about the need for other people to become “computer-literate.”But not all experts (专家) agree that this is a good idea.
    One pioneer…says that Computer town UK was formed for just the opposite reason, to bring computers to people and make them" people-literate." …People don't have to learn computer terms(术语), but the experts have to explain in plain language.?
    57.We can infer from the text that "computer-literate" means__.
    A. being able to afford a computer
    B. being able to write computer programs
    C. working with the computer and finding out its value
    D. understanding the computer and knowing how to use it
    解析:有的电脑专家认为有必要让大家成为“computer-literate”。但David Tebbutt持相反意见。他认为人们没有必要学习电脑术语,专家可以用通俗的语言向他们传授电脑常识,让电脑走进人们的生活(即“people-literate”)。前后两种观点相反,“computer-literate”与“people-literate”词义相反。可见,“computer-literate”的意思是“电脑专家,精通电脑的人”。故选答案D。
    七、运用构词法推测词义
    中学生应掌握的主要构词方法是前缀、后缀和复合词。前缀是指加在词根前面构成新词的成分。前缀一般不改变词性,而只是引起意义上的变化。例如大家知道了前缀un -,dis-,non-,in-,im-, il-,等表示否定,就不难推测出unhappy ,dislike ,nonsmoker,informal,impolite illegal 等词的词义。后缀是指放在词根后面构成新词的成分,后缀一般改变词性,主要有名词后缀、形容词后缀、动词后缀和副词后缀,例如大家知道后缀-ant,-er,-or,-ian,ist 可以放在动词或名词后表示职业,大家对推测servant,singer,visitor,musician,artist等词的词义就不感到困难了。复合词多由两个单词组合而成。复合词的词义往往可以通过其组合部分来确定。例如:door-bell一词,可以根据其组合部分door和dell来确定是“门铃”。
    先看例子⑴“Many of the problems are of college level and these pupil can figure them out. It is just unbelievable!”said the teacher from Guangdong province. (97年高考阅读题A篇)
    ⑵Business decisions are often made with many unknown and unknowable factors(因素)which would even puzzle(迷惑)best poker players. (2000年高考阅读题C篇)
    句⑴、⑵中的unbelievable和unknowable分别由词根believe、know加词缀un-和-able构成。un-是否定前缀,-able是形容词后缀,意思是"可被…的"。据此推测上述两词的含义是"无法相信的"、"不能知道的"。
    例八(1997上海B篇)This is mainly because of great discovery made by a village doctor, Edward Jenner, in about 1798 when he published his report of his new experiment called vaccination( from the word “vacca” meaning a cow)
    74. The doctor’s new discovery was called “vaccination” for the reason of that _______
    A. he discovered smallpox near a farm
    B. he experimented a disease form the cattle
    C. he was working with cattle in the countryside
    D. people got the disease of smallpox from the cattle
    答案:B
    解析:根据from the word “vacca” meaning a cow可以判断vacca 一词的意思是a cow所以“牛痘”称之为vaccination .
    八、按照逻辑意义推测词义
    例九(2002春季招生题)… You won't believe this but as soon as I got home I crashed out for four hours. Then I had dinner and went back to bed, …
    59. The expression “crashed out” means .
    A. chatted with her friends B. slept soundly
    C. broke down D. dined out
    解析:文中“went back to bed”意思是“重新上床休息”,表明编辑已经睡过觉,因此推测“crashed out”的意思是“睡觉”。故答案为B。
    九、根据因果关系推测词义
    一定的原因导致一定的结果,通过因果互及的方法来推测生词的含义。
    例十 (2001’上海B篇)
    77.What does the word jazz mean in the following sentence?
    Don’t give me that jazz for I am a practical person.
    A. Rhythmic beats B. A type of music
    C. A kind of dance D. Meaningless talk
    答案:D
    解析:从所给的句子中for I am a practical person 可知,因为说话的人说自己是一个讲究实际的人。因此,他或她让对方不要说空话。
    例十一(NMET2002)…Gold is one of a growing number of shoppers buying into the organic trend, and supermarkets across Britain are counting on more like him as they grow their organic food business.…
    62. What is the meaning of “the organic trend” as the words are used in the text?
    A. growing interest in organic food
    B. better quality of organic food
    C. rising market for organic food
    D. higher prices of organic food
    解析:根据Gold对有机食品的理解“无药害,能支撑家庭农场,味道可口”等优点 → 受更多人的欢迎 → 需求市场扩大,三者之间构成因果关系。据此推测“the organic trend”意思是“人们对有机食品越来越感兴趣",故选答案A。
    十、根据生活常识来推测词义
    在阅读中有时需要读者利用现有的生活技能和相关常识,凭借自己的直接经验或间接经验对获取的信息再加工,进行逻辑推理,进而做出准确的判断。
    例十二(NMET1993)… Although no fruit is yielded during the winter, this cold period is good for the tree.
    73.The word yielded in the last sentence means _____.
    A.improved B.increased
    C.produced   D.sold
    解析:本篇先容了苹果树的生长特点:冬天气温低,果树不挂果,但对果树生长有好处。根据果树生长特点推测“yield”的词义是“结果”,选项C与此意接近。因此,选答案C。
    以上几种推测词义的方法不是互不联系的,有时可以同时采用几种方法推测词义。除了上述猜词技能,同位语(互为说明)、同义词(含义接近)、关联词、图示法等也可以作为推测词义的手段,有时考生可以把几种猜词技能结合起来,解决阅读中的词汇障碍。需要注意的是,一个单词通常有好几个意思,大家要解决的是这些词在文中所表达的意思。因此,不可脱离上下文。同时,在英语阅读中运用和掌握这些猜词方法,就会在很大程度上扫除词汇障碍;根据上下文的逻辑关系进行推理分析,挖掘文章的内涵,有助于提高阅读速度和培养整体阅读的理解能力。
   
           
  (编辑单位 番禺区大岗中学   本文学科编辑 周文筑)
 选自《广州教学研究》总第415期  

   


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